Advanced First Aid


When someone is in need of CPR, the general public is usually the first to be called on. Through a proper sequence of events, the victim of cardiac arrest will be given the best chance for survival. The "CHAIN OF SURVIVAL" is used to help everyone remember these sequence of events. The "CHAIN" remains strong when each step is followed. However, the "CHAIN" is broken if even one step is left out. Below is a picture of the "CHAIN OF SURVIVAL" as well as information on Adult, Child, and Infant CPR. For more information please contact us.

CPR BASICS: Adult CPR (ages 8 and older)

Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is a first-aid technique used to keep victims of cardio-pulmonary arrest alive and to prevent brain damage while more advanced medical help is on the way. CPR has two goals:

  1. To keep blood flowing throughout the body.
  2. To keep air flowing in and out of the lungs.

While modern Emergency Rooms and Paramedic Ambulances have high-tech equipment and an arsenal of drugs to help treat victims of cardio-pulmonary arrest, CPR is a simple technique that requires little or no equipment. What you do is pretty basic:

1. Call 911 or ask someone else to do so. 

2. Try to get the person to respond; if he doesn’t, roll the person on his or her back.

3. Start chest compressions. Place the heel of your hand on the center of the victim’s chest. Put your other hand on top of the first with your fingers interlaced.

4. Press down so you compress the chest at least 2 inches in adults and children and 1.5 inches in infants. One hundred times a minute or even a little faster is optimal.  (That’s about the same rhythm as the beat of the Bee Gee’s song “Stayin’ Alive.”)

5. If you’re been trained in CPR, you can now open the airway with a head tilt and chin lift.

6. If you feel comfortable doing so, pinch closed the nose of the victim. Take a normal breath, cover the victim’s mouth with yours to create an airtight seal, and then give two, one-second breaths as you watch for the chest to rise.  If you are uncomfortable providing mouth to mouth, perform chest compressions only.  It is always better to do something rather than doing nothing.

7. Use an AED if one is present.

8. Continue compressions and breaths — 30 compressions, two breaths — until help arrives.

Here are the steps that make up CPR:

CPR BASICS: Child CPR (ages 1-8)
CPR for children less than 8 years old (including infants) is similar to performing CPR for adults. There are, however, some differences:

  1. If you are alone with the child give one minute of CPR before calling 911.
  2. Use the heel of one hand or two fingers for chest compressions.
  3. Press the sternum down 1/2 the depth of the chest.
  4. Give the same 2 full breaths followed by 30 chest compressions.
  5. Continue this cycle until help arrives.
  6. Do not use an AED on someone less than 8 years old unless it is specifically configured for children. Never use an AED on a child less than 1 year old.


A heart attack results from heart disease -- a condition in which one of the arteries that supplies blood to the heart becomes blocked, ultimately damaging the heart muscle. The blockage is often a result of a buildup of plaque, known as cholesterol, and other fatty substances. Plaque inhibits and obstructs the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart, thus, reducing the flow to the rest of the body.

If the blood and oxygen supply is cut off severely or for a long period of time, muscle cells of the heart suffer severe damage and die. The result is damage or death to the area of the heart that became affected by reduced blood supply.


It is important to know that restricted blood flow to the heart:

  1. Usually occurs before the heart attack happens.
  2. May happen days, weeks, or even months before the heart attack occurs.
  3. May be mild and easy to ignore.
  4. May be confused with indigestion.
  5. May be confused with sore muscles.


In some, but not all, cases, the body will send warning signs that indicate a heart attack. These include:

  1. Uncomfortable pressure, fullness, squeezing, pain, or discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts for more than two minutes. This pain may be persistent, or may go away and return.
  2. Pain or discomfort that spreads to the shoulders, neck, or arms pain, sweating, nausea, or shortness of breath.
  3. Any chest discomfort that causes anxiety or concern.
  4. Any chest discomfort that is accompanied by lightheadedness, fainting, or dizziness.
  5. Any of the above symptoms that disappear with rest, then return with exertion.
  6. Unexplained weakness or fatigue.
  7. Palpitations, cold sweat, or paleness.
  8. Pain that lasts for 10 to 15 minutes while you are resting should also be evaluated immediately.


  1. CALL 911! If you, or someone you know exhibits any of the above warning signs, act immediately. If necessary, give CPR.
  2. Do not delay treatment. If you, or someone you know, are experiencing any of these signs CALL 911! Time is Critical!
  3. Do not try and drive yourself to the hospital and do not let someone else drive you to the hospital. Paramedic Ambulances carry everything needed to treat you and ensure your proper care while enroute to the Emergency Room.



Stroke, also called a brain attack, happens when the arteries leading to the brain are blocked or rupture. When the brain does not receive the needed oxygen supply, the brain cells begin to die. A stroke can cause paralysis, inability to talk, inability to understand, and other conditions brought on by brain damage. Strokes kill nearly 150,000 Americans each year and are the leading cause of adult disability.


  1. Temporary or permanent impairment including weakness on one side of the body.
  2. Problems with balance and/or coordination.
  3. Difficulties with speech and memory.
  4. Problems with vision or reading.
  5. Trouble swallowing.
  6. Pain.
  7. Numbness.
  8. Depression and/or sudden outbursts of emotions.
  9. Problems with being unaware of the effects of the stroke.
  10. Problems concentrating, thinking, learning, or making decisions, loss of energy and/or chronic fatigue.


Stroke happens suddenly and may be prevented by immediate response to warning signs. Warning signs and symptoms may include:

  1. Sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body.
  2. Sudden difficulties with speech and understanding what others are saying.
  3. Sudden problems with vision -- dimness or loss of vision, particularly in one eye.
  4. Sudden dizziness.
  5. Sudden problems with walking.
  6. TIA: Another warning sign of stroke is called transient ischemic attack (TIA), also called a "mini-stroke." A TIA can cause many of the same symptoms as a stroke, but TIA symptoms generally only last for a few minutes.


  1. CALL 911! Call for immediate medical assistance if you suspect a person is experiencing a transient ischemic attack, as TIAs may lead to stroke. Also call for immediate medical assistance is you suspect a person is experiencing a stroke.
  2. Do not delay treatment. If you, or someone you know, are experiencing any of these signs CALL 911! Time is Critical!
  3. Do not try and drive yourself to the hospital and do not let someone else drive you to the hospital. Paramedic Ambulances carry everything needed to treat you and ensure your proper care while enroute to the Emergency Room.